In 1859, the Khmer Krom of the province of Srok Khleang, under command of Sena Sous, stood up to the Vietnamese in the battles of Mahatup and Chong Ballang. During three years of fighting the Khmer Krom won most military engagements in the areas surrounding the province. Unfortunately A Vietnamese undercover agent, belonging to other ethnic group, had infiltrated his rank joined the Khmer force and became Sena Suos’s most trusted chief. Later, Sena Sous was poisoned by the man (his name was unknown).
After the execution of Oknha Son Kuy in the province of Preah Trapeang, Tesa Saum, (Lam Saum) a provincial administrator, formed a force in Chab Phleung (Tap Son), Tracu District, to battle against the Vietnamese. His army won a battle in Phnor Don (0 Dung) that resulted a heavy casualty for the Vietnamese. He was later captured on another front, and brought to Hue to be executed. This happened under the reign of King Thieu-Tri, one of the Vietnamese emperors.
During the reign of King Thieu Tri (1841- 47), the Khmer Krom were harshly forced to abandon their Buddhist religion, custom, tradition, and language. Oknha Son Kuy (also known as Chavay Kuy), Governor of the Srok of Preah Trapeang, had to give up his life in exchange for those rights. The Vietnamese Court of Hue recognized the facts and agreed to have the imposition lifted. When Oknha Son Kuy as beheaded in 1841, people rose up against the Vietnamese through out the country. The Khmer Krom had to stand alone and faced severely retaliations without any supports from King Ang Doung (1840-59) of the Khmer Empire(It was understandable that at the start of his reign, Thailand and Vietnam often attempted to impose their superiority over the Khmer internal affairs). The body of SON KUY was buried in the capital seat of the Preah Trapeang (Travinh), and his tomb is still standing in Bodhisalaraj ( Kampong) temple until today.
During the Tay Son uprising (1779-1796), the Srok of Preah Trapeang had given asylum to the fugitive Vietnamese Emperor Gia Long so that he could reconstitute forces against his own warlord Tay Son. King Ang Eng (1779-96) of the Khmer Empire had also provided a military support to this Vietnamese Emperor as a gesture of a good neighbor. However, after regained throne of Annam from the Tay Son, Gia Long arbitrarily turned the Srok Preah Trapeang into a Vietnamese colony. During his dynasty (1802-19), king Gia Long started an irrigation project in the Province of Mot Chrouk (Chaudoc). Thousands of the Khmer Krom were forced to dig a canal named Chum Nik Prek Teng (Vinh Te), 53 kilometers long and 25 meters wide, from Bassac River to the Gulf of Siam. During this forced labor project from 1813-1820, many thousands of the Khmer Krom were killed. In one particular instance the Khmer workers were buried alive so that the Vietnamese soldiers could use their heads as stove stands to boil water for tea for their Vietnamese masters. The phrase “Be careful not to spill the masters’Tea” is still well reminded to there Children by all Khmer Krom parents or grandparents. Before the Canal Project well done, Annamite soldiers held khmer laborers into Pillories, each fillory contained about 20-40 people (they said to prevent Khmer laborers run away from mobilization),at least from 2-5 thousand were locked in pillories located in the canal; the dam was opened, water filled the canal, all Khmer laborers were drowned, no one was survive. (Listen to the Te Ong AnussaÂ´s song that means the MasterÂ´s Tea Memo).
During the Le Dynasty 1600’s, Vietnam experienced internal chaos. The Vietnamese warlords struggled for power and sought full control of Vietnam. The Trinh clan controlled the northern part of Vietnam while the Nguyen has controlled the south. Consequently, the Trinh and Nguyen wars provided the Vietnamese with opportunity to infiltrate the northeast provinces of Kampuchea Krom in the provinces such as Do Nai, Morea and Toul Ta Mauk. In 1620, the young Khmer monarch, king Chey Chetha II (1618-1628) had fallen into the similar Vietnam’s trap as that of the king of Champa in 1307. The warlord Nguyen Hi Tong (1613-1635) presented one of his exotic daughters, Princess Ngoc Van, to King Chey Chetha II for some favors . Through the Princess’ intervention in 1623, the Nguyen warlord sent his representatives to ask the Court of Udong permission for the Vietnamese to conduct trade in Morea (Baria) and Prei Nokor (Saigon ), and be given custom authorities over trading. Because of marriage to the Vietnamese wife, King Chey Chetha II had no strong reasons to refuse but granted the requests. Some historians agreed that these were the covert acts intended to rob the Khmers of their rights. Later, the Court of Hue, again, used the nice guy’s trick by volunteering their men to assist the Khmer authority in carrying out the policing in the areas. Some documents in Khmer history have cited that at the start of the relationship, the Court of Hue only asked to use certain areas in Prei Nokor to train their militaries for wars against the Chinese and they would be returned to the Khmer authority in 5 years. But at the death of king Chey Chetha II in 1628, the areas of Prei Nokor, Morea, Do Nai, and Toul Ta Mauk were flooded with the Vietnamese warlord . Kampong Srakartrey (Bienhoa) in 1651; Prah Suakea or Morea (Baria) in 1651; Kampong Kou (Longan) in 1669; Tuol Ta Mauk in 1696; Kampong Krabey Prei Nokor (Saigon) in 1696. In 18 th century, Mac Cuu a Chinese who received a permission from Ang Eum (1710-22) to con- trol the province of Peam (Hatien), Kramounsar (Rachgia) and Koh Tral ( Phu Quoc island ) in 1722. The provinces of Mesar (Mytho), Kampong Reussey (Bentre), Koh Gong (Gocong) and Peam Ba-rach ( Long Xuyen) were lost to Vietnam in 1732. Phsar Dek (Sadec), Long Ho (Vinhlong), Mot Chrouk (Chaudoc) in 1757, Raung Damrey (Tayninh) in 1770, Prek Reussey (Cantho) in 1758. The provinces of Preah Trapeang (Travinh), Khleang ( Soctrang), Pol Leav (Baclieu), and Teuk Khmao (Camau) were siezed in 1775 and until 18th century our motherland Kampuchea Krom was totally controlled by the Vietnamese 1840.
Another set back to the Khmer Empire was the southward expansion of the Kingdom of Vietnam. As early as 10th century, Vietnam first began its territorial expansion over the Kingdom of Champa. In early 17th century, they captured the remaining part of the territory, and the Kingdom of Champa was erased from the world map. The Chams’ territory is now simply known as Central Vietnam. During the reign of Tran Anh Tong (1293-1314), Princess Huyen Tran of Vietnam was presented for marriage to the King of Champa as a trap to annex the Chams’ territory. After the arranged marriage, the annexation was completed as planned, in 1673. A similar scheme was also used against the Khmer Empire. The campaign started in 1623 and continued until they occupied the whole of Kampuchea Krom.
From the 3rd to the 14th century there was southward migration of ethnic T’ai (also known as Siam or Thai) from southern district of China called Nan Chau. At the beginning of 13th century, there were the establishments of some small kingdoms in the northern regions of the Khmer Empire. In 1279, the Sukhotei Kingdom was established and later on became Thailand. In 1353, at the northeast, Lan Xang Kingdom (Laos) was founded. Beyond the far northeast region of the Khmer Empire at the Chinese border, there was an establishment of a new state called Chao Chili by the Ytieh (Vietnam). Until the early 900’s, the state of Chao Chili was a vassal state of the Chinese Empire. After the formations of states and regaining independence, the wars began to take a toll on the Khmer Empire. The Thai moved south from the Sokhotei; the Chams and the Vietnamese from the northeast; causing the Khmer Empire to become very weak. Consequently, their territory became smaller and smaller as time went by. The last episode of this tragedy took place when Kampuchea Krom was incorporated into Vietnam rather than Cambodia in 1954.
After over one thousand years under the Chinese domination, the Vietnamese ambition on Territory expansion became unbearable to their weak neighbors in the south. The most well known campaign of all was Nam Tien (Southward Movement), which aimed at the Kingdom of Champa as their first target. As the campaign became reality, the southern border had been moved south as planned, Ly Thanh Tong (1054-1072), then renamed the country to Dai Viet (Great Vietnam). All of Vietnamese rulers continued to implement this campaign as their highest priority, and their border continued to open up to the south. While struggling for internal power, the Vietnamese always used the conflicts as opportunities to “borrow” neighbor’s territories for regrouping their forces or asking for asylum. When the wars were over, the grantor’s territory and their people would suffer great losses, not Vietnam. Besides, the Vietnamese leaders also used inter-marriage as another means of manipulation to capture their neighbors’ territories. The loss of Kampuchea Krom to Vietnamese was the result of these cunning practices. Champa and Laos have gone through the same experience, and the results were the undeniable facts of the recent world history.
The Khmers who live in the southern regions of the greater Cambodia are called Khmer Krom. The word Khmer Krom is more acceptable by the Khmer in Kampuchea Krom than the Khmer in Cambodia since it clearly identifies the geography of where these people were born, and live since 1862, upon completion of their occupation of Indochina, which included Tonkin, Annam, Laos Cambodia and Kampuchea Krom. The French colonial turned Kampuchea Krom to a colony and called it Cochin China, whereas the other four “states” were under the French protectorate. The name Cochin, perhaps, took after the southern city of India where both places have had much resemblance to each other. During their rule in Cochin China, the French authorities practiced a double standard policy when it came to the Khmer Krom and Vietnamese. The French avoided dealing directly with the Khmer Krom and used the Vietnamese to oppress them. Kampuchea Krom was the southernmost territory of the Khmer Empire. During this period, the Empire was a major power in South East Asia. The renowned architecture and construction of the Ancient Angkor Wat and many other numerous monuments in the Empire had brought the Khmer artistic to the highest level that human beings ever attained. The ruined port of Oc Eo (O Keo in Khmer) in the province of Rach Gia (today southern Vietnam), was the busiest port in the region, where the Khmers, Chams, Chineses, Indians, and Europeans did their trading. The township of Prei Nokor was a commercial center for the Khmer Empire, and it was once the most important military garrison against the Vietnamese’s southward movement. In spite of all these, the Khmer Krom people have outlived the sufferings and turbulence of the history, and remained united until today.
False claims by Vietnamese Newspaper, Thong Luan Khmer Krom have been in their homeland for thousand of years! They are not the new arrivals as the Thong Luan, A Vietnamese Newspaper claimed! November 8, 2005 by Mr. Kim Hoai Xuan, firstname.lastname@example.org This is to response to Mr. Nguyen Van Huy, Editor of the article about Khmer Community in South Vietnam. Mr. Nguyen Van Huy: I do commend your ability to use writing skills to convey the history and anthropology to readers of Thong Luan. Unfortunately, in your writing about the Khmer Krom organization and about the history of community in South Vietnam, your article has left out missing important pieces. I wonder, that is an intended or un-intended act? Before touching the issue of missing pieces above, it is necessary to reiterate what Mr. Pham Dinh said: The righteous understandings of ethnic communities who are present in Vietnam are important for social administration. At the same time, Vietnam is a country built on those communities according the Tap Hop Chinh Tri Dan Chu Da Nguyen. Therefore, an understanding of their bad time as well as good time and their history as well as political aspiration, are very important. On the issue of Khmer Krom organization presently, if you have observed deeper its accomplishments on the international political arena of the Khmers Kampuchea-Krom Federation (KKF), you would have retracted your comment of the purpose of the KKF is to demand the return of the sovereignty of Southern Vietnam to the Khmer Krom. In facts, the desire and purpose of the KKF is not for the sovereignty. The issue of sovereignty is not the main purpose of this organization. Of course, its purpose is to struggle for the respect of human rights of the Khmer Krom People. Their overall desire is the achievement of their rights to self-determination in according with Charter of the United Nations. In summary, the purpose of the KKF is to struggle on the basic of human rights, freedom and democracy as determined by the international law. The Vietnamese People as well as other Peoples who are presently in Southern Vietnam have nothing to worry about their political future when the Khmer Krom achieved their self-determination. The law shall determine the peaceful co-existence of all Peoples on that fertile land in according with the proverb: “It is in-different of who we are, we must love and share”. On the other important issue, the Khmers Kampuchea-Krom Federation of the Khmer Krom in Southern Vietnam today are more progressive in comparison with the old stereo-typical thoughts which people used to look down on the indigenous Khmer Krom People. Since formation in 1996 until today, the KKF has become member of four different organizations of international status. Firstly, it is a member of the United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues (UNPFII). Secondly, it is a member of the Un-represented Nations and Peoples Organization (UNPO). Third, it is a member of the International Dragon Boat Federation (IDBF). And lastly, it is a member of the Transnational Radical Party (TRP). On the issue of those communities of Southern Vietnam, your article has claimed that the Khmer Krom were present in Southern Vietnam after those of the Vietnamese and the Chinese. In fact this claim actually conflict with materials of Vietnam history, which has long been publicized. That was the Southward March (Nam Tien) of the Vietnamese to occupy Central Vietnam, the land of Champa People and to occupy the Mekong River Deltas in Southern Vietnam of the Khmer People. These indigenous Peoples (the Khmer and the Champa) have been in those areas for thousand of years before the Vietnamese People has arrived. The historical relics have proven such claims. The Khmer Krom People has been the legacy of the Kingdom of Funan before the First century to the end of the Fifth century, then evolved to the Kingdom of Chenla since the beginning of the Sixth century to the end of the Ninth century and finally became the Khmer Empire at the Tenth century until today. Vinh Hung Monument of 5.6m Wide, 6.9m Length, and 8.9m Height. Vinh Hung Monument The Vinh Hung monument is in Bac Lieu province, built approximately in 892A.D. This monument has been amongst the oldest relics with Angkor architecture of the Khmer People preserved in the Mekong River Deltas. The project has been built over 1100 years ago. This could be traced backed to the end of the Kingdom of Chenla at the end of the Ninth century. The Kop Treng Buddhist Temple Location: The Kop Treng temple locates in Kop Treng hamlet, To commune, Triton District, An Giang province. Special Features: The Kop Treng is the oldest temple in An Giang province. It is over 1600 years old, the temple was built in 400A.D. This has been the legacy of the Oc Eo Civilization of the Kingdon of Funan and continuous theory about the name of An Giang. The Ang Temple Location: The temple is 7km from the provincial district, mingles with oldest trees of Sras-kou pond. It locates on the 4ha of land in the 8th commune, Provincial District, An Giang province. Special Features: The Ang Temple is among the oldest temples in Travinh province. It is over 1100 years old. The temple was built in 990A.D. This has been the oldest and most appealed architecture mixing with natural beauty. The Ang Temple has been accepted by the Vietnam Department of Culture and Information as a National Cultural Treasure. The Kh’leang Temple Location: The Khleang temple locates at 71 Mau Than Street, 5th Hamlet, 6th Commune, Provincial District, Soctrang province. Special Features: The Khleang is the oldest temple in Soctrang province. It is over 500 years old and the temple was built in 1533A.D. This has been the legacy that links with the continuous theory about the name of Soctrang province.