Since the Geneva Conference was held on 20th July, 1954, the fundamental rights and deeply-felt aspirations of the Khmer population of Cochin-China have been impaired by the occurrence of a series of new developments of increasing portent. These have aroused considerable concern in the Khmer people, always mindful of the fate of their brothers in Cochin-China. A systematic racial policy is being implemented with the obvious intention of eventually eliminating all trace likely to testify to the Cambodian character of the Cochin-China territories. These extremely serious problems, which must be solved without delay through a fair settlement taking into account the interests of all involved. 1. While the South Vietnam Government was fully aware both of Cambodia’s rights in the matter, and of the aspirations of the Khmer population of Cochin-China, it signed a bilateral Convention with France on 16th August, 1955, imposing Vietnamese nationality on the later. This follows from Article 1 of the Convention, which lays down that, “for the purposes of this Convention, the words ‘Native of South Vietnam’ shall refer to all persons with both parents of Vietnamese descent or belong to ethnic minorities settled in Vietnamese territory”. Under Article 3, it is stated that “former French subjects native of South Viet-Nam (Cochin-China) or former settlements of Haiphong and Tourane are of Vietnamese nationality regardless of their place of residence on 9th March, 1949”. 2. The above-mentioned convention was the starting point of a policy intensive assimilation, which is absolutely incompatible with the most firmly established principles of international Law regarding ethnic minorities. An ordinance issued on 29th August 1956, by the South Viet-Nam Government made it compulsory, subject to serve penalties, for all Chinese born in South Vietnam and former French citizens who had opted for Vietnamese nationality to adopt Vietnamese sounding names. On that occasion, the same obligation was imposed on the Khmers in Cochin-China in spite of the fact they are not foreign immigrations, but native of the country. In addition, registrars were instructed to make alterations in the population registers all over the country. 3. In pursuance of the same policy, the South Viet-Nam authorities have cancelled the entry “Cambodian race” from the identification papers which formerly bore it. Under the French colonial regime all identification documents issued to Cambodians in Cohin-China contained the following entries. Nationality: French subject Race: Cambodian Instead, the new documents issued by the Vietnamese authorities read: Nationality: Viet-Namese Race: Viet-Namese Similarly it was decided to cut down the teaching in schools on the Khmer language as a first step towards its gradual suppression, in disregard on the assurance given by the Vietnamese delegation to the Geneva International Conference on Education (Report by the Representative of Viet-Nam to the 18th Conference held from 4th to 17th July, 1955). 5. Only recently the South Vietnamese Government, still pursuing a policy aim at removing all Cambodian traces from the Khmer territories, re-named certain provinces when their old names were still reminiscent of their Khmer origin. Thus Tra Vinh, derived from the Cambodian Trapeang, has been re-styled Vinh-Bing, Srok Khleang, which became Soc-Trang is now Ba-Xuyen, etc. 7. Other political actions of an infinitely more serious nature have taken place which offended the civilized mind, and cannot and must not be ignored by the Members of the United Nations. a. How, for instance, should one feel about the obligation imposed on Khmers in Cochin-China to wear the Vietnamese national dress? b. While in the whole Buddhism world-to which, incidentally, Vietnamese also belongs – the priesthood of that religion is the object of the deepest veneration, the Government of South Viet-Nam, in utter defiance of the most sacred precepts of Buddhism, compulsorily enlisted Khmer Buddhist monks in the South Viet-Nam armed forces. c. In addition, traditional relations between the Khmer Buddhist clergy of Cochin-China and that of Cambodian are constantly hindered by south Vietnamese authorities, who also interfere with the introduction into Cochin-China of newspapers, periodicals, and books in the Khmer language. d. As might have been expected, many young Cambodian clerics and others had to leave South Viet-Nam and take refuge in Cambodia. Perhaps one of the objectives of the South Viet-Namese Government is to make the position of the Khmers unbearable, while in Cambodia Viet-Namese immigrants live in complete security and peace. e. urthermore, in the acute political unrest prevailing in South Viet-Nam the Khmer minority has crushed since 1945 between rival political faction engaged n violent armed conflict. As a result, tens of thousands of Khmers, exposed to reprisals from all sides, are dying in obscurity. f. Lastly, the South Viet-Nam Government, applying the principle that might is right, proceeds with the systematic transplantation of refugees from North Viet-Nam into districts by Khmers, expropriating or even expelling people from their land, and sometimes form their pagodas. All those measures are condemned by international ethics. They are part of a general scheme or policy tending both to assimilate the Khmer minority through the most extreme and brutal methods, and to eliminate the territorial problem. The Royal Government of Cambodia particularly wishes to draw the attention of the Members of the United Nations to those actions which are obviously tantamount to physical and cultural genocide.